REIGN Rulers, Elections, and Irregular Governance dataset



When using REIGN, please use the following citation:

Bell, Curtis, Besaw, Clayton., Frank, Matthew. 2021. The Rulers, Elections, and Irregular Governance (REIGN) Dataset. Broomfield, CO: One Earth Future. Available at

When using ELVI, please use the following citation:

Besaw, Clayton., Frank, Matthew. 2021. ELection VIolence (ELVI) Indicators and Forecast Dataset. Broomfield, CO: One Earth Future. Available at

Both REIGN and ELVI build upon several other datasets that have been altered, extended, updated and transformed. If you use REIGN/ELVI, please also consider citing:

Leader Data:

Goemans, Henk E., Kristian Skrede Gleditch, and Giacomo Chiozza. 2009. “Introducing Archigos: A Dataset of Political Leaders” Journal of Peace Research, 46(2): 269-183.

Ellis, Cali Mortenson, Michael C. Horowitz, and Allan C. Stam. 2015. “Introducing the LEAD Data Set.” International Interactions, 41(4): 718-741.

Political System Data:

Marshall, Monty G., Ted Robert Gurr, and Keith Jaggers. 2016. Polity IV Project. Center for Systemic Peace.

Barbara Geddes, Joseph Wright, and Erica Frantz. 2014. “Autocratic Regimes and Transitions.” Perspectives on Politics. 12(2).

Irregular Events:

Powell, Jonathan & Clayton Thyne. 2011. Global Instances of Coups from 1950-Present. Journal of Peace Research 48(2):249-259.

Erik Melander, Therése Pettersson, and Lotta Themnér (2016) Organized violence, 1989–2015. Journal of Peace Research 53(5)

Historical Election Violence:

Susan D. Hyde and Nikolay Marinov, 2012, Which Elections Can Be Lost?, Political Analysis, 20(2), 191-201.

The Convesation. Why Sudan’s deadly crackdown on protesters could escalate in coming weeks Eric Keels and Joshua Lambert. June 11, 2019

Global Investigative Journalism Network. GIJN’s Data Journalism Top 10: Data Feminism, Blockchain for Investigations, Train Speeds, EU DataViz Conference April 25, 2019

The Economist. Sudan and Algeria overthrow despots but not their political systems. April 17, 2019

The Economist. How to predict when a despot will fall. April 17, 2019

Data Is Plural Newsletter. April 10, 2019

AI News Update: AI news glance for busy executives. April 5, 2019

Vanguard. Dictatorship and election loss February 5, 2019

Business Insider. The odds of a military coup in Venezuela rise every day Maduro stays in office. February 1, 2019

Business Insider. 2018 was the first year since 2007 without a coup. Here’s what that means for 2019. December 24, 2018

Washington Post. It’s been one year since Zimbabwe toppled Mugabe. Why isn’t it a democracy yet? November 17, 2018

American Enterprise Institute. Elections have spread throughout the world. But has democracy? That’s a different question. May 24, 2018

American Enterprise Institute. New data on democracy’s supposed decline April 26, 2018

Koto AI. An Anomaly in Armenia: Now what? April 24, 2018

American Enterprise Institute. Is democracy actually in retreat? There’s some evidence to the contrary April 4, 2018

Koto AI. Tenure track: China’s term-limit change in comparative perspective March 12, 2018

Koto AI. Global: More Democracy, Less Freedom January 19, 2018